What are tonsils and why do they need removing? (What is a tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy?)

How inflamed tonsils compare with normal tonsils

How inflamed tonsils compare with normal tonsils

What are tonsils?

Tonsils are soft tissue located at the back of your throat; they are part of the body’s lymphatic system (so are adenoids). When they are working properly, they help to recognise bacteria and viruses entering through the mouth and produce white blood cells to fight off infection.

Tonsils are particularly useful during childhood while the body is still encountering new bacteria and viruses for the first time and building up the immune system. Doctors seem to be of differing opinion as to how useful they are as adults; I’ve some that have called them redundant and unnecessary, I’ve also met other doctors who view removing them as an absolute last resort.

Why do tonsils need removing?

Tonsils may temporarily swell while fighting infection, sometimes they become so swollen that they result in a very sore throat and fever (tonsilitis), they may also partially obstruct the airways and not respond to non-invasive treatmeants.

Surgery may be recommended to help treat:

  • Multiple case of tonsillitis (seven cases of tonsillitis or strep in the last year, or five cases or more over each of the last two years).
  • Breathing problems related to swollen tonsils
  • Frequent and loud snoring
  • Periods in which you stop breathing during sleep (sleep apnea)
  • Bleeding of the tonsils
  • Trouble swallowing chewy foods, especially meats
  • Cancer of the tonsils

Back in the 1980s, having your tonsils out was kind of a childhood rite of passage. It was a very common procedure and often parents had already experienced a tonsillectomy in their own childhood. Medical opinion has now swung in a different direction and there is a more stringent list of criteria that often needs to be met (as well as requiring parent consent / advocacy). For a balanced medical opinion, try this post by Christopher Johnson (a pediatric intensive care physician) .

What is tonsil grading?

Surgery is most likely to be recommended if tonsils are consistently swollen at Grade 3 or Grade 4 coupled with other complications (such as snoring and/or sleep apnea).

What are the 4 grades of swollen tonsils

What are the 4 grades of swollen tonsils?

Basically tonsils are graded based on how much of the airway they block.

  • Grade 0 = tonsils are within the the tonsillar fossa
  • Grade 1 = tonsils obstruct 0-25% of oropharyngeal airway
  • Grade 2 = tonsils obstruct 26-50%
  • Grade 3 = tonsils obstruct 51-75%
  • Grade 4 = tonsils obstruct 75%

What are the possible side effects of swollen tonsils?

  • Fever / temperature. Keep in mind that children can react in their own individual ways – they may keep getting low grade temperatures instead of a fever.
  • Runny nose and congestion (as well as the sore throat).
  • Difficult or painful swallowing.
  • Swollen and tender glands (lymph nodes) on the sides of the neck.
  • Bad breath.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Tiredness and headache.
  • Stomach upset or pain.
  • Mouth breathing, noisy breathing, and/or snoring (due to enlarged tonsils blocking the airways). Obstructive sleep apnea. The swollen tonsils and/or adenoids can intermittently block airflow. It sounds like your child is silent and then there’s a big noisy sucking in of air.
    • In Miss 2 it can be so loud that I can hear it through her closed bedroom door and can sound like something’s fallen off a shelf and hit the floor! It’s a crappy and frightening thing as a parent that can result in just sitting with them in the dark either to check that they are breathing or to give them a gentle nudge to help them breathe again. If you’ve spent time with them hooked up to an oxygen saturation monitor then you’ll be familiar with what a stark difference there is between their oxygen levels when alert and upright versus lying prone to sleep.

  • Fatigue. They might seem like they’re getting enough hours of sleep but in reality the quality of sleep is poor because their body is struggling to get enough oxygen through the night. It’s a bit like starting each day on a half tank of gas.
  • Developmental delays. Sleep is critical for young children. During those early years, they are rapidly growing and learning. They need sleep to focus during the day; to have time for their brain to make connections between all the things they have learned or experienced; and their brain releases a growth hormone while they sleep. Poor sleep, fatigue and pain/discomfort, trouble hearing: these can make it harder for them to stay on track.
  • Behavioural difficulties. Poor sleep, fatigue and pain/discomfort, trouble hearing: these can result in daily misery that they don’t know how to express.

Keep in mind that young children (i.e. toddlers) may not be able to describe their symptoms to you and it may not even occur to them to do so (especially if they chronic health issues). They may also be confused by referred pain; the ears and throat share nerves (as well as being linked by eustachian tubes) so they may say their ear is sore when the infection is actually in their throat. Another possibility is if they keep exhibiting teething type behaviour well after all their teeth are in (i.e. chewing on fingers or a dummy constantly, lots of drool) combined with a temperature and bad breath – the cause may actually be their tonsils!

What does surgery (a tonsillectomy) involve?

Surgery will normally take place at a hospital (probably as an outpatient). The doctor will review medical history in advance and make recommendations about pausing medications. You will normally be advised not to take anti-inflammatory medications within 7 days of surgery. They will also discuss post-operative pain medication.

The day of the surgery will involve a period of fasting; food or water won’t be permitted because they can impact the anesthetic. It’s a good idea to have family support and a game plan of how to distract your child; an older child may understand why they can’t eat but a toddler is likely to just focus on the fact that they are off routine and they are HUNGRY!

During surgery, your child will be under a general anesthetic. The surgeon will enter through the mouth and the tonsils will be removed with an electrical cauterizing unit.  You can watch videos of surgery on YouTube but they can be a bit difficult to stomach; I preferred this video of a digital tonsillectomy surgery.

adenotonsillectomy

Adenoids and tonsils

Often the adenoids will be removed at the same time as the tonsils (if they are also swollen); this is termed an adenotonsillectomy. Click here for information about the adenoids.

What happens after surgery?

Depending on the age of your child, they may keep them in the hospital overnight for monitoring or they may go to a recovery room and then go home the same day. You should be given a pamphlet with information about post-op care (i.e. like this tonsillectomy guide).

Your child may feel quite groggy and tired for the next few days and also have some nausea; vomiting once or twice is normal but contact your doctor if vomiting persists.

A light, cool diet for the next few days is generally recommended (avoid hot liquids or spicy food) but doctors will often recommend that children eat whatever they want – the abrasion from bread or crackers will actually help to clean the area. (That’s not to say there won’t sometimes be screaming pain because a sharp cracker edge has just struck the surgical site).

Some doctors will prescribe antibiotics. They will normally be prescribed painkillers (like Pammol and Tramadol) and anti-inflammatories (like Nurofen); if your child won’t take the fully funded options consider buying over-the-counter replacements (for kids) that have been flavoured.  It is important to keep on top of their medication (including waking them up around the clock for a few nights) as the pain is severe; it will often peak somewhere around around Days 5-9 due to the way the membranes heal and can be excruciating.

It’s important to keep them rested and hydrated – even if this means just getting small regular sips of water, lemonade ice-blocks, or melty ice=cream into them; overall, the fluids are more important than food.

Common side effects will include:

  • Swollen tongue
  • Bad breath (like a hyena!)
  • White coating on the tongue
  • White scabs over the tonsils

Your doctor will talk you through potential complications and when to seek immediate medical care – i.e. if bleeding occurs (it can be life threatening); they may be able to resolve with medication or surgery may be required.

They need lots of rest for two weeks to promote healing and will be off school during this time due to the risk of infection.  They will also generally have several weeks off sports, exercise, and swimming.

Keep in mind that removing tonsils may only be one part of a wider treatment plan. If the chronic inflammation was linked to allergies then you will still need to work with a doctor to create an ongoing allergy treatment plan.

In Splendid Isolation

Autumn wonderland

Autumn wonderland

“He who is certain he knows the ending of things when he is only beginning them is either extremely wise or extremely foolish; no matter which is true, he is certainly an unhappy man, for he has put a knife in the heart of wonder.” Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn

I drafted this a week ago…little did I know that life would throw up complications and we’d be looking at a minimum of fours weeks in isolation.

Today marks the end of two weeks of isolation leading up to Miss 2’s surgery. She spends the night in my bed (she’s refused to sleep in hers since we were rushed to hospital by ambulance for Mother’s Day) and is awake all day with it just the two of us. There is a distinct lack of personal space and it’s challenging for both of us. The only time that I have to myself is an hour or so in the evening, after finishing up cleaning the house, before collapsing into bed beside her.

Week 1 was a particularly vicious head cold with rivers of snot that covered her face no matter how often I wiped it away. Her facial dermatitis was miserable, her already swollen airways blocked up, and she’d give up on sleep entirely somewhere between 2am and 4am when the fluid build-up got too much (and she needed to be upright to have it drain away). Being awake around the clock was beyond exhausting, I got sick too, I dragged myself through each day, I was grateful whenever she was willing to listen to audio stories that might give me a break for twenty minutes.

She hit rock bottom after about 7 days and then slowly started to improve. Her doctor advised that with her surgery so close we were best to spend another week away from playgroups, Sunday School, gatherings of kids, and, well, anywhere germy, to try and prevent her from catching a secondary infection. Historically. her compromised immune system has meant a rolling series of viral infections for weeks at a time.

She missed her friends. She missed her rountines. She stomped around the house (literally) telling me, “I’m a grumpy old troll! I’m ANGRY! I want (insert names of friends)”. I’m proud of her emotional recognition and expression; I’m glad that teaching her to stomp (as opposed to kick, hit, bite, or throw) as a healthy way of venting her feelings seems to be helping. It’s exhausting and it sucks for both of us.

It’s been a mental challenge each day trying to work out where we can for the morning that ideally doesn’t cost money, will interest her, doesn’t involve kids, and can’t be an indoor playground / attraction (because let’s face it those things hardly ever get disinfected!). Oh, and it’s winter, cold, and rain keeps threatening on the weather forecast.

Each day I have to try and be cheerful, positive, and zen. Some days I do better than others. Some days I’ve burst into tears in public toilets while she just keeps tantruming and I can’t even have 30 seconds to pee in quiet (not alone, just peacefully). Some days it feels overwhelming that not only do we have to get to the surgery but then we’re still going to need to be careful about post-op infection. Some days the logistics of our upcoming hospital stay, needing to take all our food with us, needing to look after her alone (and just physically carrying everything!) seems overwhelming.

So I’ve tried to find the beauty in each day for us. She delights in the small details – the differing colours and shapes of leaves, throwing seed cones into the ocean and watching them bob like boats, stopping to listen to birds sing.

Autumn dreaming

Autumn dreaming

Autumn explorer

Autumn explorer

We’ve walked through parks of imported oak trees with their beautiful autumn leaves still covering the ground like snow.

We’ve spent hours exploring Botanic Gardens admiring the hidden mazes and the surprise of colourful roses even though it’s winter.

New Zealand beaches in winter

New Zealand beaches in winter

What is New Zealand like in winter?

What is New Zealand like in winter?

We had one morning that saw me teaching her chess in the library while the wind and rain swirled outside, only for it to suddenly be replaced by a little beachside microcosm of warm blue skies and sunshine. We walked on the sand, splashed in the waves, and drew pictures in the sand creating beach art.

Being isolated was anything but splendid (although it makes for a catchier title) but looking for the beauty in each day and seeking a positive focus made it more bearable. We can’t always change our circumstances, we can only change how we choose to view our circumstances and how we react within them.

How to give your toddler a spa bath in winter!

Spa bath in a flexi bucket

I love flexi buckets! I have two: one big pink one and a small yellow one. They can be used for so many things from hanging out laundry, to clothes hampers, packing stuff to visit relatives, toy storage, and winter spa baths!

Miss 2 loves asking for a bucket bath when the temperatures start dropping. Just sit the bucket in your bath, fill it to a nice warm temperature from the taps, add a gentle-on-the-skin bubble bath, and pop in your toddler.

The Goldilocks principle applies when choosing your flexi bucket: not too big, not too small, but just right. You want your toddler to be able to sit upright comfortably and have water up to their armpits (parental supervision is recommended as per any bath). You’ll find that you use much less water than a normal bath and they’re warmer because more of their body is consistently covered.

The great thing is that this also works in a shower! I’ve also seen friends put multiple buckets in one bath (of assorted sizes) so that siblings can spa together (and without fighting).

You can even do this during summer! Put the empty bucket outside on the lawn (water is heavy) and ferry warm water to it. Presto! An outdoor bath in the sun and a happy excited child!

Tip: These are also great to take to a beach so that you can create a mini pool for younger siblings or wash off sandy feet.

Spa bath fun!

How to display your child’s artwork without damaging the walls!

How to display kids art work

How to display kids art work

There are lots of great ideas on how to display your child’s art work. There’s only so many pieces that you can attach to the fridge with magnets, so why not hang some in their rooms where they can admire what they’ve made!

How to display children's art work

How to display children’s art work

Some ideas include using curtain rails but those (although sturdy) require drilling holes into the wall which isn’t a great idea if you’re renting.

How to display kids art without damaging the walls

How to display kids art without damaging the walls

The solution is to use hooks with a removable, damage free, adhesive backing. Tie some pretty coloured wool between the hooks and peg up your child’s beautiful creations!

Decorative clips for hanging art work

Decorative clips for hanging art work

Also check out these totally adorable decorative clips on AliExpress for US$3 and free international shipping!

Gluten Free Berry Muffins

Gluten Free Berry Muffins

Gluten Free Berry Muffins

I love experimenting with gluten free flours. This is a different recipe again from the gluten free Vanilla Cupcakes and moist Chocolate Cupcakes. I was really stoked as Miss 2 kept asking for more of the mini ones and her playdate didn’t notice they were gluten free!

Like most gluten free baking, these are best served same (or next day); I free flow the rest in the freezer and pull them out as needed.

Ingredients

Group 1

  • 1 cup hot water
  • 1/2 cup neutral vegetable oil (like Rice Bran oil)
  • 1 egg
  • 1 tsp vanilla
  • Generous pinch ground cinnamon

Group 2

  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 1 cup superfine white rice flour
  • 1/2 cup garbanzo flour (also called chickpea flour)
  • 1/4 cup oat flour
  • 1T sweet (glutinous) rice flour
  • 1/4 cup cornstarch (cornflour)
  • 1/2 tsp guar gum
  • 1/2 tsp Baking Soda
  • 1/2T Baking Powder
  • 1/2 tsp salt

Other ingredients

  • 1/3 – 1/2 cup frozen berries
    • I recommend raspberries and blueberries.
  • Raw unrefined coconut sugar

Allergies: dairy free, soy free, gluten free, nut free.

Directions

  1. Preheat the oven to 180’C.
  2. Whisk together the ingredients in Group 1. This helps to aerate the mix. You can use a stick blender or I used the food processor (with a plastic mixing attachment, not a metal cutting blade!).
  3. Sift together the ingredients in Group 2.
  4. Mix the combined dry ingredients into the whisked liquid.
  5. Prepare the frozen berries and mix in gently.
    • Raspberries crush really easily into tiny teardrops (which provide a pretty pink speckled effect when baked); blueberries are already a good size; boysenberries are large enough to need cutting in half.
  6. Pour into cupcake / muffin trays.
    • I made 6 large and 12 mini cupcakes.
  7. Preheat the oven to 180’C. The mixture will thicken slightly while the oven heats.
    • The mix will appear very runny compared to a gluten mix – the rice flour and cornstarch will cause it to thicken as it cooks.
  8. Bake at 180’c for approx. 25-35 mins or until cooked.
    • I found the mini muffins took 25 mins and the normal ones took 35 mins.

 

Icing 

I liked these with dusted with coconut sugar. I pulled them out of the oven after approx. 15 minutes (once they had risen), dusted with coconut sugar, and then placed back in the oven to finish baking.

I also have recipes for other icings that don’t use any artificial colours, glycerin, additives etc.

Moist & delicious Chocolate Cupcakes (gluten free!)

I love chocolate. I’ve posted a few chocolate recipes like the Crazy One Dish Chocolate Cake and the Chocolate Irish Potato Cake, and I’ve posted some make-from-scratch gluten free recipes like the Vanilla Cupcakes and the all natural pink berry flavoured icing. I wanted to play around in the kitchen with some different gluten free ingredients and make a wonderfully chocolatey and moist cupcake that also wouldn’t be packed with sugar – I prefer to balance my cakes so there’s more chocolate flavour in the cake and then extra sweetness in the (optional) icing. Miss 2 loved these with all natural peppermint icing or the Chocolate Buttercream icing (dairy free).

Ingredients

Group 1

  • 1 cup hot water
  • 1 tsp instant coffee powder
  • 1/2 cup neutral vegetable oil (like Rice Bran oil)
  • 1 egg
  • 1 tsp vanilla
  • Generous pinch ground cinnamon

Group 2

Allergies: dairy free, soy free, gluten free, nut free.

Directions

  1. Preheat the oven to 180’C.
  2. Whisk together the ingredients in Group 1. This helps to aerate the mix. You can use a stick blender or I used the food processor (with a plastic mixing attachment, not a metal cutting blade!).
  3. Sift together the ingredients in Group 2.
  4. Mix the combined dry ingredients into the whisked liquid.
  5. Pour into cupcake cases (makes about a dozen). Bake at 180’c for approx. 25-30 mins or until cooked.
  6. Allow to cool before icing. (We liked combining these with an all natural peppermint icing!).

 

Icing 

The icings that I use don’t have any artificial colours, glycerin, additives etc.

Highlights for May (collected recipes & posts)

ALLERGY FRIENDLY COOKING

BAKING & DESSERTS

MEALS

PARENTING

PLAY

HEALTH

Choko Pikelets (apple pie style!)

Choko pikekets (apple pie style!)

Choko pikekets (apple pie style!)

I posted earlier about why choko are awesome and such a versatile vegetable; as well as being nutritious they are also cheap, easy to grow,  and low in natural food chemicals (amines, salicylates, glutamates) which makes it suitable for sensitive guts, and those following a RPAH Failsafe diet (often useful for allergy sufferers).

It easily takes the place of fruits like apple or pear which means it’s a great way of adding a vegetable into your baking! Miss 2 loved these apple pie style Choko Pikelets and kept asking for more!

I’ve kept the spices mild but you can definitely play around with them to suit your palate! Try increasing the cinnamon to 1 tsp, or adding 1/2 tsp ground ginger, a pinch of nutmeg, a pinch of ground cloves, or a combination of these!

Ingredients

  • 1 cup plain flour
  • 1 tsp Baking Powder
  • 1/2 tsp Baking Soda
  • Pinch salt
  • 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon
  • 1/4 tsp allspice
  • 2 Tbsp maple syrup + 1 Tbsp brown sugar, or, 1/4 cup white sugar.
  • 1/2 cup grated fresh choko
    • Just like grating potatoes, a lot of water comes out. Pat the grated choko dry before use.
  • 3/4 cup milk (can use almond or rice milk)

Note: Other names for choko include – chayote, sayote, labu siam, seemai kathrikai, Buddha’s Hand Melon, lóng xü.cài, ishkus, इस्कुस, স্কোয়াশ, Bangalore brinjal, chou chou, pipinola.

Tip: Although the recipe is gluten based, you can easily use Nana’s Yummy Gluten Free Pikelets and just add the choko + spices.

Allergies: gluten free*, dairy free*, soy free, nut free.

Directions

  1. Whisk the egg and 1/2 cup milk until frothy.
  2. Combine the dry ingredients.
  3. Stir in the choko. Then mix in the frothy egg + milk mixture.
  4. Slowly mix in the additional 1/4 cup milk until you have a smooth consistency.
  5. Allow mixture to stand for a few minutes.
  6. Heat a non-stick frying pan over medium heat. Wait until it is hot and then brush with butter or allergy-free spread (like Nuttelex).
  7. Drop level tablespoonfuls of the mixture into the pan and cook for half a minute or until bubbles appear on the surface.
  8. Turn over and cook other side for 1 minute until golden.
  9. Allow to cool and serve with butter / spread and honey or jam.

Superhero Smoothie (allergy free)

Superhero smoothie

Superhero smoothie

Today’s smoothie recipe is free from the top 8 allergens and Miss 2 asked for more (even though it has vegetables in it – bwahaha!). It’s also a great way to get some healthy fats and foods into your system when you’re recovering from the flu and can’t cope with the idea of making soup from scratch!

Ingredients

  • 200ml coconut milk
  • 200ml water
  • 4-6 ice cubes
  • 1 ripe banana
  • 2 slices mango
  • 1/3 cup baby spinach
  • 1 tsp ground chia seeds
  • 1 tsp ground linseed (flaxseed)
  • Optional: drizzle of maple syrup

Optional: Since your smoothie is going to be green anyway, you may want to add 1 tsp of Healtheries Super Greens Smoothie Booster.

Tip: Have the coconut milk in the fridge (or add less water & more ice) so that this will be chilled once blended,

Allergies: gluten free, dairy free, soy free, egg free, nut free.

Directions

  1. Put everything in a blender and blend till smooth!
    • Tip: Most blenders will work more effectively if you put the liquids in first.
  2. Serve immediately while it’s chilled.

 

Home Remedy Porridge for sore throats and enflamed guts

Home Remedy Porridge

Home Remedy Porridge with Slippery Elm

I’ve just been posting about how Miss 2 and I were rushed to hospital by ambulance – her with croup and me with gastro. This is a great recipe for helping your toddler (or adult) to eat when they’ve been vomiting, had diarrhoea,  have a sore throat, have food allergies, or have reflux. It’s also a useful recipe to try after surgery, i.e. for removing adenoids or tonsils. It also pairs well with the rehydration tonic.

Slippery elm can  help relieve inflammatory bowel conditions so it’s also useful for

  • Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

You may also want to try this as a baby food if your baby or toddler needs to be gluten free.

Ingredients

  • 1 1/2 Tbsp Quinoa Flour
  • 1 1/2 Tbsp Brown Rice Flour
  • 1 cup Rice Milk
  • Optional: 1 tsp Slippery Elm
  • Optional: boiling water
  • Optional: Maple Syrup

Allergies: gluten free, dairy free, soy free, egg free, nut free.

Directions

  1. Mix everything in a pot and cook over high heat (stir regularly).
  2. Bring it to a boil and then turn down low. Keep stirring regularly and add more liquid (either rice milk or boiling water) to keep a good consistency.
    • If you have an upset gut then it’s best to include the slippery elm. The slippery elm absorbs water so you will need to slowly add liquid while the porridge is cooking.
  3. Cook for approximately 5 minutes.
  4. Serve plain or as you generally like your porridge. I like this with a little maple syrup stirred in.